Bible interpretationsearly newspaper analysis, graphological procedures and even Freudian dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis MAYRING, a, . But even before that, different approaches to analysis and comparison of texts in hermeneutic contexts e.
Following this criterion the material is worked through and categories are deduced tentatively and step by step.
For this the text is paraphrased, generalized or abstracted and reduced.
As a final stage the results are processed. Additional relevant documentation, such as financial statements, time-lines, and short biographies, often referred to in the case study as exhibits, and multimedia supplements such as video-recordings of interviews with the case subject often accompany the case studies.
Relying on theoretical propositions; thinking about rival explanations; developing a case description. However, there does not seem to exist a homogenous understanding of this method at present, but originally the term "referred only to those methods that concentrate on directly and clearly quantifiable aspects of text content, and as a rule on absolute and relative frequencies of words per text or surface unit" TITSCHER et al.
Since arguments concerning the content are judged to be more important than methodical issues in qualitative analysis, validity takes priority over reliability MAYRING,p.
The other merit is the fact that it is less costly when compared to the others such as interviews. Therefore and because the case study strategy is ideally suited to exploration of issues in depth and following leads into new areas of new constructions of theory, the theoretical framework at the beginning may not be the same one that survives to the end HARTLEY,p.
The idea behind these studies is that the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies. When selecting a case for a case study, researchers will therefore use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling.
It is largely an empty debate over the definition of the tradition with those questioning whether comparing things counts as comparative research. As another fundamental characteristics he puts forth that "you do not start out with a priori theoretical notions" ibid.
Quantitative analysis is much more frequently pursued than qualitative, and this is seen by the majority of comparative studies which use quantitative data. Critical instance case studies.
Within a feedback loop the categories are revised, eventually reduced to main categories and checked in respect to their reliability MAYRING, a, . Most of the customers will be able to answer the questions which will pertain to the brand and therefore a concrete feedback will be achieved.
Advantages of surveys[ edit ] One of the benefits of this method is that the company will be able to get feedback from a significant portion of customers. Problems of inference relate to the possibility of drawing conclusions, on the one hand, about the whole text on the basis of the text sample and, on the other hand, about the underlying theoretical constructs such as motives, attitudes, norms, etc.
According to them, classical content analysis "comprises techniques for reducing texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses" and the researcher can produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data e.
The historical comparative research involves comparing different time-frames. The rejection consisted primarily of a conceptual experiment and later on a practical one. However, the basic difference between classical content analysis and structuring within qualitative content analysis is the development and use of the coding agenda 7.
The company will just have to pay for the production of questionnaires used in the survey. As a matter of fact, it is this kind of systematics what distinguishes content analysis from more interpretive, hermeneutic processing of text material MAYRING,p.
Reality may be an objective thing, but it is understood and interpreted by people who, in turn, act upon it, and so critical realismwhich addresses the connection between the natural and social worlds, is a useful basis for analyzing the environment of and events within an organization.
This implies that the procedures of content analysis cannot be fixed but have to be adapted depending on the subject and its context. Central to it is a category system which is developed right on the material employing a theory-guided procedure.
Popper himself used the now famous example: The so-called inter-coder reliability shows to what extent different coders agree in the coding of the same text and intra-coder reliability explains how stable the coding of one coder is.
Three types of cases may thus be distinguished for selection: In general, however, the only thing that is certain in comparative research issues is the existence of differences to be analysed. Exploratory or pilot case studies. Figure 3 shows the steps of deductive category application.
In his experimental thinking, Galileo reasoned as follows: The simplest type of evaluation consequently consists of counting the numbers of occurrences per category assuming there is a relationship between frequency of content and meaning. One of the disadvantages is the fact that their design is inflexible.The C ASE STUDY is a research method that focuses on understanding the dynamics of single settings.
Although it can be used for description and deduction (Yin, ), our focus is on inductive theory development, an application for which the method is. Case study research has a long history within the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, dating back to the early 's.
At first it was a usefu. CHAPTER 1 Single Cases A multicase study project as a whole will have its plan and organization, be comparative, the single case is studied with attention to other cases.
MULTIPLE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS. Guilford Publications. Comparative Analysis and Case Studies MEVIT - Gunn Sara Enli, Associate Professor Department of Media and Communication University of Oslo 2> D ep ar tm nofM d iC uc Plan for lecture Case study Comparative method relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge om a.
A case study is an in-depth examination, often undertaken over time, of a single case – such as a policy, programme, intervention site, implementation process or participant. Comparative case studies cover two. A case study paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or among more than two subjects.Download