Christians of the middle colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey struggled to maintain identity and cohesion in a highly diverse religious environment utterly unlike the Europe their churches had been formed in.
His Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God, written inadvertised these events and what Edwards thought they portended across the Atlantic world.
The result was a religion that hewed close to the concerns, but also the prejudices, of the local community. The s—90s were a low point in religious adherence and belief in the United States, with enlightened deism influential among elites; churches and personal morals disrupted by war; and politics, commerce, and westward migration competing with religion for popular interest.
Sermons had to be practical, simple, and entertaining. Men of education, wealth, and character needed to control politics and culture.
Churches debated his call for a more evangelical theology and preaching. Cane Ridge was notorious for its bizarre phenomena: He preached in a way that argued his case and demanded an immediate decision.
He adopted Arminian free-will views of human ability, arguing that conversion was an individual act that required no special divine grace. The open market of religious choice that America now was meant that these groups had the power to affect, if not determine entirely, the style and the content of revival preaching.
The active participation of marginalized segments of society—plain folk, blacks, and women—may have contributed to the uninhibited nature of these revivals.
Protestants became open to experiment and were determined to grow in national influence, making evangelicalism the powerful movement it remains today. The Revolution had turned those assumptions upside down, and, as power migrated into the hands of non-elites, conservatives feared for social order.
The causes of religious revivals are impossible to specify, though contributing factors can be identified. The revivalists of the First Great Awakening, while far from antiecclesiastical, made the church secondary to the transaction that took place between an individual and God, and most taught that if a person truly believed, they could be assured they were converted.
His ideas—and the legacy of the Second Great Awakening—were passed on in his Lectures on Revivals of Religion in The energies it unleashed left an even deeper impression on the United States than the first and is seen by some historians as the beginning of modern revivalism. Revivals occur in many religions throughout the world, but they are often identified with American evangelicalism.
It spanned by some reckonings almost half a century, occurring in various regions and with a motley assemblage of leaders and participants. Abolitionism received an influx of zealous evangelicals in the North, while slavery enjoyed the blessings of all the evangelical churches of the South.
Once critics of slavery, evangelicals in the South found themselves accommodating the system to better attune the sermons to the local populace.
The awakenings exerted immense influence on American culture, as later generations of Christians emulated these revivals, hoping to recreate their benefits, including unusually high numbers of conversions and an intensified piety and commitment.
In addition, new religious groups, known as upstart sects of Baptists and Methodists, and distinctively American movements, such as Adventism and Mormonism, grew out of the awakening.
If the first was evangelical in the sense that it emphasized individual conversion over confessional loyalty or church membership, the second institutionalized almost all the themes that currently define evangelicalism:The First Great Awakening was a religious revitalization movement that took place in the northeast, mainly in the New England area.
The Great Awakening spread throughout the colonies on the eastern seaboard. The dates of when the First Great Awakening began vary due to the opinion of the chosen historian. THE COMPARISON OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GREAT AWAKENING Comparison of the First and Second Great Awakening There are many factors that triggered the religious revivals known as the Great Awakenings.
These awakenings encouraged citizens to partake in religious ceremonies and activities.
The Great Awakening would also produce social changes as well. By uniting the colonies in the spirit of a religious movement, for the first time the colonies could share a common set of beliefs.
While this isn’t of the same magnitude as a political unification, it is still important as the first message that would bring the colonies together.
Temperance Movement and Great Awakening Essay The "Second Great Awakening" began in the s.
It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and, like the First Great Awakening, was led by passionate and emotional preachers. The First Great Awakening occurred in the American colonies in the early eighteenth century.
This period of time was marked by a return to religion, doctrinal changes, and influences on social and political thought. At this time, many people did not live near a church, and were more concerned with 3/5(6). At the beginning of the very first Great Awakening appeared mostly among Presbyterians in Pennsylvania and in New Jersey.
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