Despite the pleas of Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia of New York and others not to impair the defense effort or embarrass the President, Randolph went forward with his plans and it was expected that 50, Negroes would turn out on July 1, When the Philadelphia Transit Company was struck to protest the upgrading of eight Negro porters to drivers, it had to be taken over by the Army.
If they were hard on the troops, charges of discrimination resulted; but if they stood up for their men they were often scorned by peers and accused of being "nigger lovers. Above and beyond the physical harm was the moral cost to the nation.
War did not change these attitudes as much as might be supposed, because American democracy had not yet reached the point where gender was seen as irrelevant to the full exercise of personal rights and capacities.
The industries that resisted hiring blacks, or did so only at the lowest levels, were frequently those dominated by racist labor unions. America represented itself to the world as the land of the free and the home of the brave, but this was only a half-truth.
This proved to be too radical a step, despite the added difficulty involved in building segregated training camps. This did not go far enough, and in response to further pressure the Army announced that it would form a number of black combat units, promote a Negro Colonel to the rank of Brigadier General, and appoint Negro advisors to Secretary Stimson and Selective Service Chief Brigadier General Lewis B.
More often she was called upon to deal with such problems as when "a girl had come in a bare midriff, and all the men were hitting themselves with hammers. Negroes, by far the largest racial minority, were as segregated and discriminated against during the war as before it.
Not all the attacks were against Negroes. For black workers World War II opened up opportunities that had never before existed. Many small changes were taking place locally that in the aggregate would prove to be important. Of equal importance, the war offered many women upward occupational mobility.
The Army solution was to begin converting them to service troops, who were accepted -- the more menial the work the better. As a result, it was estimated that eight married women out of 10 between the ages of 18 and 40 were in either the armed services or industry.
The excellence of these centers and their success in persuading young mothers to use them was, for the most part, an example that persuaded few employers. Miss Lake was cooperative, saying that she wore her hair up most of the time anyway, to keep it out of electric fans, the buttons of friendly men, revolving doors, and other hazards.
So long as men remained unemployed, the UAW was determined to keep women out of its plants. By blacks held 7. It would enjoy considerable success, aided greatly by labor shortages that forced employers to lower old barriers.
Although whites looted and burned too, none was shot by policemen. Officially, the American view was that married women were only working for the duration and would return home when it was over. While the participation rate of all women in the Detroit work force rose from Boys and girls left school early to work in factories, or at least to replace those who had moved up to better paying jobs.
Further, in a survey made by the U. Women over 35 years of age accounted for 60 percent of the increase. To prevent outbreaks of violence by or against them, commissioned whites often had to patrol black housing areas and undertake other duties in addition to their own that commanders would not trust to Negro officers.
Later generations would have to redeem the promise of American life. By Novemberwhen their numbers peaked, there werewomen in auto factories, constituting 26 percent of the labor force. Because a handful of German Jews did reach the United States, and Japanese-Americans and Negroes improved their position later, does not change the shameful record just discussed, which had practical as well as moral implications.
Only after riots broke out did it begin to integrate a handful of auxiliary ships. The Navy; for its part, assigned blacks to labor units after being ordered to expand their role beyond that of messmen.
The Machinists and Boilermakers between them represented 30 percent to 40 percent of airframe workers and over a fifth of shipyard employees, but the Machinists were lily white and the Boilermakers restricted blacks to segregated and voteless locals.
These actions kept black voters in line, even though Negroes continued to serve in segregated units. Because employers seldom wished to fight the union on this issue, most new hires were male.
American democracy, which boasted of providing equal justice to all, failed to make good on its pledge in the one area above all others by which democracy is tested. In March Sergeant Thomas B. Although 49 percent of the women employed in war industries in March had not worked before the war, 27 percent had shifted from other occupations.
Small steps, to be sure, but inch by inch the rock of segregation was being chipped away. Despite regional differences, the total number of women in war industries soared, in Detroit alone the figure rising from 46, to a high offemale industrial workers.
Part of the reason was that mothers mistrusted, often rightly so, the quality of jury-rigged facilities. By at Willow Run, one-third of the women workers had experienced pay raises of percent since the war began, compared to one-ninth of the men.
Seeds of change were planted just the same.experience of minorities and women during World War II. Use evidence from the documents and your knowledge of the period from to to compose your answer. DBQ- minorities in world war II. required to cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on your knowledge of the period.
It is often claimed that the major American wars of the last years have resulted in the most important social and political gains of minorities and women.
DBQ World War II: The Road to War (continued) Document 4 As German aggression continued inBritain, France, and Italy met with Hitler to discuss his demands for the Sudetenland, a section of Czechoslovakia. This radio broadcast by William Shirer describes what happened at this meeting.
World War II and the American Home Front. Cover: Upper Left: An electric phosphate smelting furnace is used to make elemental phosphorus in a Americans and other minorities, most of whom made significant progress in some areas while suffering continued discrimination, sometimes violent.
DBQ- minorities in world war II. The following question requires you to write a coherent essay incorporating your interpretation of the documents and your knowledge of the period specified in the question. To earn a high score you are required to cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on your knowledge of the period.
World War II was more important than the Great Depression in fundamentally transforming American society. Assess the validity of this statement based on your knowledge of American society between and and the documents below.Download